Installing Hardware & Display Components
Hardware and Device Replacement
- RAM: system memory or desk of PC, fast access, low amount = lower access speeds, volatile.
- Storage: file cabinet of PC, slower access, static (non-volatile).
- Check MoBo user guide to ensure RAM amount, form-factor etc.
- GPU/Video Card: processes video and connects to external monitors.
- CPU: brain of PC.
DC Jack Replacement Research – https://youtu.be/zFuu8LSaAQE
Hard Drive Migration
- SSD: non-volatile flash memory for storage, faster, reliable, less power, quieter, smaller.
- Upgrading: check form factor, check cables, install OS.
- Cloning: specific software copies drive.
- Prepare: back up data, create a recovery disk, have the right tools.
- Remove drive: power down, anti-static mat, open PC, disconnect cables etc.
- Install new drive: reverse remove process.
mSATA: mini Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
- USB: no cables, no install, no upgrade needed.
- Bluetooth: peripharel, personal area network (pan), PC (PCMCIA) card/slot, USB dongle.
- Mini PCI: 124-pin edge connector, square shape, older.
- *Mini PCIe: 54-pin. rectangular, any device on architecture works.
- Cellular: anywhere access, built-in mobile broadband, USB.
- Replacing: turn off, remove card, remove screws. Reverse process to complete.
PCIe: Peripheral Component Interconnect (Express)
Physical Privacy and Security Components
Biometrics: fingerprint, voice, facial etc.
- Fingerprints: most common, scanning pad, stored in secure DB.
- Facial: identify a face, requires a camera, verification based on math DB.
- Iris/retinal: typically external device, physical access to facilities.
- Voice: less common, easier to hack.
- NFC: extension of RFID, very short, quick sync, payments.
- NFC vs BT: no pairing, short-range security, less interference.
NFC: Near Field Communication RFID: Radio Frequency Identification
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Common in laptop/flat panels, replaced CRTs
- Design: liquid crystal, between plastic, light source, divided into tiny squares or pixels.
- Scenes: 32-bit colour (16 million), pixel high by wide resolutions, DPI means pixels per inch.
- Lighting: Cold cathode fluorescent light (CCFL) or Light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
- CCFL: requires inverters DC to AC.
- LED: uses DC
- Performance: Response time (ms).
- LCD Versions: In-plane switching (IPS), super plane to line switching (PLS), Vertical Alignment (VA), twisted nematic (TN), transistor translator logic (TTL).
- IPS: best overall.
- PLS: by Samsung, more power, brighter.
- VA: inbetween IPS and PLS
- TN: for gamers.
- TTL: digital signals only, not common.
Pixels: Picture Elements DPI: Dots per inch – used in printing. PPI: Pixel per inch – used in monitors/screens.
Organic Light-emitting Diode (OLED)
Organic compounds, passing electricity through light through TFT, anode/cathode.
- Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED) or Active-matrix OLEX (AMOLED).
- PMOLED: one row at a time without using TFT, pixels off most of the time, decreases life.
- AMOLED: brighter, better option.
- OLED vs LED LCD: controlled on a pixel-by-pixel basis, compared to edge lighting.
- Viewing Angles: OLED is better, IPS LCD is better.
- Brightness: LED LCD is better, nits or lumen is higher the brighter.
- Contrast: measured in contrast ratio, OLED offers higher contrast.
Mobile Display Components
- LCD Advantages: lightweight, low power consumption, inexpensive.
- LCD Disadvantages: no true black, colour matching, losing backlight.
- OLED: expensive, increase battery use.
- Touchscreen: digitzier fingers.
- Antenna: in-screen, multiple types.
- Webcam: standard in laptops/phones, built-in sound.
- Microphone: integrated, general purpose-fit.
Wi-Fi Antenna Connectors
- Location: wrapped around laptop displays, more durable, improves range and performance.
- Poor Performance: antenna booster, range extender or change location of devices.
Webcams and Microphones
Video comms, image quality, frame rate.
- USB Webcams: portability, compatibility, attachments.
- Microphone: embedded in the case, more sensitive, noise/quality. Headset, drivers/apps.
Laptop Screen Inverters
CCFL: LCD monitors, neon signs, computer case lighting.
- A small tube, less damaged, uses defues to spread light.
- Needs inverter, increases weight and temperature.
LEDs: Semiconductor emits light, panel backlight, fibre optics and indicator lights.
- Doesn’t need an inverter, efficient, minimal heat, long life, quality.
Digitizers and Touchscreen
Digitizer: any device taking analogue input and outputting digital signals. Process of digitization.
- Tablets/Phones: finger, stylus etc. are inputs.
- Touch Screens: laptops, monitors, kiosks etc.
- Formats: built-in or standalone.
Digitizer Example: Microphones use a thin, metal diaphragm that vibrates in response to sound waves, then passed to a recording device.
CompTIA A+ Core 1: Mobile Device Accessories & Network
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Standard connection interface
- v1.1: low speed 1.5 Mbps 3m or high speed, 12Mbps 5m.
- v2.0 480Mbps 5m – FireWire by Apple.
- Standard-A, Standard-B, Mini-B, Micro-B.
- v3.0: 5Gbps 3m – blue lining, backward compatibly.
- v3.1: 10Gbps Type A or C, and v3.2: 10/20Gbps.
- USB-C 24 pins, double-sided – does not mean USB 3.1 or 3.2 speeds.
Apple Proprietary connection
- 8 pins per side, double-sided.
- Built-in device auth – checks if Apple device, non-apple lightning cables.
- MFi Certs: stringent manufacturers to be Made for iPhone/iPad/iPod.
Serial Interface Types
1952 Dsub, looks like uppercase ‘D’ – RS-232 serial communications or com points.
- Naming: DE-9P – Dsub, E size – 9 number of pins or sockets, P pins or S sockets (male/female).
- DA-15: 8/7 pin layout for game controllers.
- DC-37: aerospace etc.
- DD-50: 17-16-17 pin for Fast-SCSI equipment (Small Computer System Interface).
- DE-9 (DB-9): comms, old networks, standard mouse – legacy.
Near-field Communication, Bluetooth, Hotposts
Mobile Device Accessories
- Headsets: audio, handsfree, wired/wireless, 3.5 jack (tip ring sleeve), USB.
- Speakers: external, wired/wireless, stereo sound.
- Webcams: embedded or external.
Docking Station and Port Replicators
Makes connections easier to devices e.g. laptops.
- Features: single dedicated connections, extra and varied.
- Compatibility: manufacture specific, proprietary ports.
- More: number/types of ports, design, ease of design/use.
- Types: state of laptop.
- Cold: must power down the device.
- Warm: sleep-like mode or some interference.
- Hot: plug-n-play, quick install.
- Port replicator: similar, smaller, lighter, portable.
- More universal connects via built-in device connection like USB.
- Converts some connections e.g. Micro-DVI to DVI.
Wireless and Cellular Data Networks
Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)
- Series of Gateways, repeaters, relays – mobile to cell towers.
- Functionality: voice calls, transfer data, roaming – cells from other providers.
- Networks: 3G (2Mbps), 4G/LTE (30Mbps), 5G (1Gbps) Generation – data speeds improve.
- CDMA Code Division Multiple Access: provides multiple connections to devices aka multiplexing.
- SIM Subscriber Identity Module: identifies the device to the GSM network.
- Aeroplane mode: on/off feature for wireless.
- Tethering (mobile hotspot): enables network connection to one (or more) devices.
- Preferred Roaming Lists (RPL): network changes or new towers for providers.
- IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity: provider to the device (this locks phones).
- IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity: provider to subscriber.
Global Positioning System (GMS), uses radio nav systems, geolocation satellites, incoming data.
- Atomic clock 20k’s away @14k ks/per hour fast (time dilation effect, theory of relativity).
- Receiver GPS, standard triangulation, up/down/forward/back/up/down.
- Location Services: AssistedGPS (uses internet data i/e/ pinging).
- Apps: check-in, logging real-time movement, mapping, correct time/date, image metadata.
- Considerations: data privacy sharing, family member locations.
Mobile Device Management (MBM)
Corporate devices, optimising functionality, protect corporate data/network.
- Support: broad devices phones/tablets/OSs etc.
- Works: MDM agent (Google/Microsoft) and MDM server, policy config, app deployment.
- Device config, remote wipe, p/w enforce, tracking, encryption, allow/block list.
- Mobile Application Management (MAM): overlap, lifecycle, installing/updating/deleting apps…
- Features: self-service portal, automatic app distro, seamless install/update/delete apps…
Mobile Device Synchronization
Same user, multiple devices, same experience.
- Sync to Cloud: mail (exchange/O365), data (G Drive/OneDrive/iCloud).
- Desktop: software (FreeFileSync/iTunes).
- Car via BT: iOS/Android Auto.
- Connections: USB, wireless/wifi, BT.